Java 8 - Streams


A Stream in Java can be defined as a sequence of elements from a source that supports aggregate operations on them.

you can process data in a declarative way similar to SQL statements.

What is Stream?

Stream represents a sequence of objects from a source, which supports aggregate operations. Following are the characteristics of a Stream −

  • Sequence of elements − A stream provides a set of elements of specific type in a sequential manner. A stream gets/computes elements on demand. It never stores the elements.

  • Source − Stream takes Collections, Arrays, or I/O resources as input source.

  • Aggregate operations − Stream supports aggregate operations like filter, map, limit, reduce, find, match, and so on.

  • Pipelining − Most of the stream operations return stream itself so that their result can be pipelined. These operations are called intermediate operations and their function is to take input, process them, and return output to the target. collect() method is a terminal operation which is normally present at the end of the pipelining operation to mark the end of the stream.

  • Automatic iterations − Stream operations do the iterations internally over the source elements provided, in contrast to Collections where explicit iteration is required.

Different ways to create stream

Stream.of(val1, val2, val3….)
public class StreamBuilders
{
     public static void main(String[] args)
     {
         Stream<Integer> stream = Stream.of(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9);
         stream.forEach(p -> System.out.println(p));
     }
}

2.2. Stream.of(arrayOfElements)

public class StreamBuilders
{
     public static void main(String[] args)
     {
         Stream<Integer> stream = Stream.of( new Integer[]{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} );
         stream.forEach(p -> System.out.println(p));
     }
}

2.3. List.stream()

public class StreamBuilders
{
     public static void main(String[] args)
     {
         List<Integer> list = new ArrayList<Integer>();
 
         for(int i = 1; i< 10; i++){
             list.add(i);
         }
 
         Stream<Integer> stream = list.stream();
         stream.forEach(p -> System.out.println(p));
     }
}

2.4. Stream.generate() or Stream.iterate()

public class StreamBuilders
{
     public static void main(String[] args)
     {
         Stream<Date> stream = Stream.generate(() -> { return new Date(); });
         stream.forEach(p -> System.out.println(p));
     }
}

2.5. String chars or String tokens

public class StreamBuilders
{
     public static void main(String[] args)
     {
        IntStream stream = "12345_abcdefg".chars();
        stream.forEach(p -> System.out.println(p));
         
        //OR
         
        Stream<String> stream = Stream.of("A$B$C".split("\\$"));
        stream.forEach(p -> System.out.println(p));
     }
}

Stream Example

Create the following Java program using any editor of your choice in, say, C:\> JAVA.

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.IntSummaryStatistics;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Random;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;
import java.util.Map;

public class Java8Tester {

   public static void main(String args[]) {
      System.out.println("Using Java 7: ");
		
      // Count empty strings
      List<String> strings = Arrays.asList("abc", "", "bc", "efg", "abcd","", "jkl");
      System.out.println("List: " +strings);
      long count = getCountEmptyStringUsingJava7(strings);
		
      System.out.println("Empty Strings: " + count);
      count = getCountLength3UsingJava7(strings);
		
      System.out.println("Strings of length 3: " + count);
		
      //Eliminate empty string
      List<String> filtered = deleteEmptyStringsUsingJava7(strings);
      System.out.println("Filtered List: " + filtered);
		
      //Eliminate empty string and join using comma.
      String mergedString = getMergedStringUsingJava7(strings,", ");
      System.out.println("Merged String: " + mergedString);
      List<Integer> numbers = Arrays.asList(3, 2, 2, 3, 7, 3, 5);
		
      //get list of square of distinct numbers
      List<Integer> squaresList = getSquares(numbers);
      System.out.println("Squares List: " + squaresList);
      List<Integer> integers = Arrays.asList(1,2,13,4,15,6,17,8,19);
		
      System.out.println("List: " +integers);
      System.out.println("Highest number in List : " + getMax(integers));
      System.out.println("Lowest number in List : " + getMin(integers));
      System.out.println("Sum of all numbers : " + getSum(integers));
      System.out.println("Average of all numbers : " + getAverage(integers));
      System.out.println("Random Numbers: ");
		
      //print ten random numbers
      Random random = new Random();
		
      for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
         System.out.println(random.nextInt());
      }
		
      System.out.println("Using Java 8: ");
      System.out.println("List: " +strings);
		
      count = strings.stream().filter(string->string.isEmpty()).count();
      System.out.println("Empty Strings: " + count);
		
      count = strings.stream().filter(string -> string.length() == 3).count();
      System.out.println("Strings of length 3: " + count);
		
      filtered = strings.stream().filter(string ->!string.isEmpty()).collect(Collectors.toList());
      System.out.println("Filtered List: " + filtered);
		
      mergedString = strings.stream().filter(string ->!string.isEmpty()).collect(Collectors.joining(", "));
      System.out.println("Merged String: " + mergedString);
		
      squaresList = numbers.stream().map( i ->i*i).distinct().collect(Collectors.toList());
      System.out.println("Squares List: " + squaresList);
      System.out.println("List: " +integers);
		
      IntSummaryStatistics stats = integers.stream().mapToInt((x) ->x).summaryStatistics();
		
      System.out.println("Highest number in List : " + stats.getMax());
      System.out.println("Lowest number in List : " + stats.getMin());
      System.out.println("Sum of all numbers : " + stats.getSum());
      System.out.println("Average of all numbers : " + stats.getAverage());
      System.out.println("Random Numbers: ");
		
      random.ints().limit(10).sorted().forEach(System.out::println);
		
      //parallel processing
      count = strings.parallelStream().filter(string -> string.isEmpty()).count();
      System.out.println("Empty Strings: " + count);
   }
	
   private static int getCountEmptyStringUsingJava7(List<String> strings) {
      int count = 0;

      for(String string: strings) {
		
         if(string.isEmpty()) {
            count++;
         }
      }
      return count;
   }
	
   private static int getCountLength3UsingJava7(List<String> strings) {
      int count = 0;
		
      for(String string: strings) {
		
         if(string.length() == 3) {
            count++;
         }
      }
      return count;
   }
	
   private static List<String> deleteEmptyStringsUsingJava7(List<String> strings) {
      List<String> filteredList = new ArrayList<String>();
		
      for(String string: strings) {
		
         if(!string.isEmpty()) {
             filteredList.add(string);
         }
      }
      return filteredList;
   }
	
   private static String getMergedStringUsingJava7(List<String> strings, String separator) {
      StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder();
		
      for(String string: strings) {
		
         if(!string.isEmpty()) {
            stringBuilder.append(string);
            stringBuilder.append(separator);
         }
      }
      String mergedString = stringBuilder.toString();
      return mergedString.substring(0, mergedString.length()-2);
   }
	
   private static List<Integer> getSquares(List<Integer> numbers) {
      List<Integer> squaresList = new ArrayList<Integer>();
		
      for(Integer number: numbers) {
         Integer square = new Integer(number.intValue() * number.intValue());
			
         if(!squaresList.contains(square)) {
            squaresList.add(square);
         }
      }
      return squaresList;
   }
	
   private static int getMax(List<Integer> numbers) {
      int max = numbers.get(0);
		
      for(int i = 1;i < numbers.size();i++) {
		
         Integer number = numbers.get(i);
			
         if(number.intValue() > max) {
            max = number.intValue();
         }
      }
      return max;
   }
	
   private static int getMin(List<Integer> numbers) {
      int min = numbers.get(0);
		
      for(int i= 1;i < numbers.size();i++) {
         Integer number = numbers.get(i);
		
         if(number.intValue() < min) {
            min = number.intValue();
         }
      }
      return min;
   }
	
   private static int getSum(List numbers) {
      int sum = (int)(numbers.get(0));
		
      for(int i = 1;i < numbers.size();i++) {
         sum += (int)numbers.get(i);
      }
      return sum;
   }
	
   private static int getAverage(List<Integer> numbers) {
      return getSum(numbers) / numbers.size();
   }
}

Verify the Result

Compile the class using javac compiler as follows −

C:\JAVA>javac Java8Tester.java

Now run the Java8Tester as follows −

C:\JAVA>java Java8Tester

It should produce the following result −

Using Java 7:
List: [abc, , bc, efg, abcd, , jkl]
Empty Strings: 2
Strings of length 3: 3
Filtered List: [abc, bc, efg, abcd, jkl]
Merged String: abc, bc, efg, abcd, jkl
Squares List: [9, 4, 49, 25]
List: [1, 2, 13, 4, 15, 6, 17, 8, 19]
Highest number in List : 19
Lowest number in List : 1
Sum of all numbers : 85
Average of all numbers : 9
Random Numbers:
-1279735475
903418352
-1133928044
-1571118911
628530462
18407523
-881538250
-718932165
270259229
421676854
Using Java 8:
List: [abc, , bc, efg, abcd, , jkl]
Empty Strings: 2
Strings of length 3: 3
Filtered List: [abc, bc, efg, abcd, jkl]
Merged String: abc, bc, efg, abcd, jkl
Squares List: [9, 4, 49, 25]
List: [1, 2, 13, 4, 15, 6, 17, 8, 19]
Highest number in List : 19
Lowest number in List : 1
Sum of all numbers : 85
Average of all numbers : 9.444444444444445
Random Numbers:
-1009474951
-551240647
-2484714
181614550
933444268
1227850416
1579250773
1627454872
1683033687
1798939493
Empty Strings: 2
Run example »





javacodegeeks is optimized for learning.© javacodegeeks .
All Right Reserved and you agree to have read and accepted our term and condition