Spring - Transaction Management

A database exchange is an arrangement of activities that are treated as a solitary unit of work. These activities ought to either total completely or produce no results by any means. Exchange the executives is an imperative piece of RDBMS-arranged undertaking application to guarantee information respectability and consistency. The idea of exchanges can be depicted with the accompanying four key properties portrayed as ACID

  • Atomicity − An exchange ought to be treated as a solitary unit of activity, which implies either the whole grouping of tasks is fruitful or unsuccessful.

  • Consistency − This speaks to the consistency of the referential trustworthiness of the database, interesting essential keys in tables, etc.

  • Isolation − There might be numerous exchange handling with similar informational index in the meantime. Every exchange ought to be segregated from others to counteract information corruption.

  • Durability − Once an exchange has finished, the aftereffects of this exchange must be made perpetual and can't be eradicated from the database because of framework failure.

A genuine RDBMS database framework will ensure every one of the four properties for every exchange. The shortsighted perspective on an exchange issued to the database utilizing SQL is as per the following −

  • Begin the exchange utilizing begin transaction command.

  • Perform different erased, refresh or embed activities utilizing SQL queries.

  • If all the activity are fruitful at that point perform commit generally rollback all the operations.

Spring structure gives a theoretical layer over various basic exchange the executives APIs. Spring's exchange bolster means to give an option to EJB exchanges by adding exchange abilities to POJOs. Spring underpins both automatic and decisive exchange the board. EJBs require an application server, yet Spring exchange the executives can be actualized without the need of an application server.

Local versus Worldwide Transactions

Local exchanges are explicit to a solitary value-based asset like a JDBC association, while worldwide exchanges can traverse numerous value-based assets like exchange in a circulated system.

Local exchange the board can be helpful in a brought together figuring condition where application parts and assets are situated at a solitary site, and exchange the executives just includes a neighborhood information administrator running on a solitary machine. Neighborhood exchanges are less demanding to be implemented.

Global exchange the executives is required in a dispersed figuring condition where every one of the assets are appropriated over numerous frameworks. In such a case, exchange the board should be done both at neighborhood and worldwide dimensions. A conveyed or a worldwide exchange is executed over various frameworks, and its execution requires coordination between the worldwide exchange the board framework and all the neighborhood information directors of all the included systems.

Programmatic versus Declarative

Spring underpins two sorts of exchange the executives −

  • Programmatic exchange management− This implies you need to deal with the exchange with the assistance of programming. That gives you extraordinary adaptability, yet it is hard to maintain.

  • Declarative exchange management − This implies you separate exchange the executives from the business code. You just use comments or XML-based arrangement to deal with the transactions.

Declarative exchange the executives is best over automatic exchange the board however it is less adaptable than automatic exchange the executives, which enables you to control exchanges through your code. In any case, as a sort of crosscutting concern, definitive exchange the board can be modularized with the AOP approach. Spring bolsters explanatory exchange the board through the Spring AOP framework.

Spring Transaction Abstractions

The key to the Spring exchange reflection is characterized by the org.springframework.transaction.PlatformTransactionManager interface, which is as per the following −

public interface PlatformTransactionManager { 

TransactionStatus getTransaction(TransactionDefinition definition); 

throws TransactionException; 

void commit(TransactionStatus status) throws TransactionException; 

void rollback(TransactionStatus status) throws TransactionException; 


Sr.No Method & Description

TransactionStatus getTransaction(TransactionDefinition definition)

This technique restores an at present dynamic exchange or makes another one, as per the predefined proliferation behavior.


void commit(TransactionStatus status)

This strategy submits the given exchange, concerning its status.


void rollback(TransactionStatus status)

This strategy plays out a rollback of the given transaction.

The TransactionDefinition is the center interface of the exchange support in Spring and it is characterized as pursues −

public interface TransactionDefinition { 

int getPropagationBehavior(); 

int getIsolationLevel(); 

String getName(); 

int getTimeout(); 

boolean isReadOnly(); 


Sr.No Method & Description

int getPropagationBehavior()

This strategy restores the engendering conduct. Spring offers the majority of the exchange spread alternatives commonplace from EJB CMT.


int getIsolationLevel()

This technique restores how much this exchange is confined from crafted by other transactions.


String getName()

This technique restores the name of this transaction.


int getTimeout()

This technique restores the time in seconds in which the exchange must complete.


boolean isReadOnly()

This strategy returns whether the exchange is perused only.

Following are the conceivable qualities for confinement level −

Sr.No Isolation & Description


This is the default disengagement level.



Indicates that grimy peruses are anticipated; non-repeatable peruses and apparition peruses can occur.



Indicates that grimy peruses, non-repeatable peruses, and ghost peruses can occur.



Indicates that grimy peruses and non-repeatable peruses are anticipated; apparition peruses can occur.



Indicates that grimy peruses, non-repeatable peruses, and ghost peruses are prevented.

Following are the conceivable qualities for engendering types −

Sr.No. Propagation & Description


Supports a present exchange; tosses a special case if no present exchange exists.



Executes inside a settled exchange if a present exchange exists.



Does not bolster a present exchange; tosses a special case if a present exchange exists.



Does not bolster a present exchange; rather dependably execute nontransactionally.



Supports a present exchange; makes another one if none exists.



Creates another exchange, suspending the present exchange in the event that one exists.



Supports a present exchange; executes non-transactionally if none exists.



Uses the default timeout of the basic exchange framework, or none if timeouts are not supported.

The TransactionStatus interface gives a basic method to value-based code to control exchange execution and question exchange status.

public interface TransactionStatus extends SavepointManager { 

boolean isNewTransaction(); 

boolean hasSavepoint(); 

void setRollbackOnly(); 

boolean isRollbackOnly(); 

boolean isCompleted(); 


Sr.No. Method & Description

boolean hasSavepoint()

This technique returns whether this exchange inside conveys a savepoint, i.e., has been made as settled exchange dependent on a savepoint.


boolean isCompleted()

This strategy returns whether this exchange is finished, i.e., regardless of whether it has just been submitted or moved back.


boolean isNewTransaction()

This strategy returns valid in the event that the present exchange is new.


boolean isRollbackOnly()

This strategy returns whether the exchange has been set apart as rollback-only.


void setRollbackOnly()

This strategy sets the exchange as rollback-only.

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